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Title Synchronization effects on rest frame energy and momentum densities in the proton
Authors Adam Freese, Gerald A. Miller
JLAB number JLAB-THY-23-3889
LANL number (None)
Other number DOE/OR/23177-6755
Document Type(s) (Journal Article) 
Associated with EIC: No
Supported by Jefferson Lab LDRD Funding: No
Funding Source: Nuclear Physics (NP)

Compiled for Physical Review D
Volume 108
Page(s) 094026
Publication Abstract: We obtain two-dimensional relativistic densities and currents of energy and momentum in a proton at rest. These densities are obtained at surfaces of fixed light front time, which physically corresponds to using an alternative synchronization convention. Mathematically, this is done using tilted light front coordinates, which consist of light front time and ordinary spatial coordinates. In this coordinate system, all sixteen components of the energy-momentum tensor (when written in the mixed representation) obtain clear physical interpretations, and the nine Galilean components reproduce results from standard light front coordinates (several of which we report for the first time). We find several optical synchronization effects that are absent in instant form densities, indicating motion within the target. Spin-zero and spin-half targets both exhibit an internal longitudinal energy flux related to the $D(t)$ form factor, and transversely-polarized spin-half targets exhibit an energy dipole moment---which evaluates to $-1/4$ for all targets if the Belinfante EMT is used, but which is target dependent and vanishes for pointlike fermions if the asymmetric EMT is instead used.
Experiment Numbers: other
Document: pdf
Accepted Manuscript: PhysRevD.108.094026.pdf
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